How was the Internet invented?
Today, many times we forget that the Internet does not carry with us all our lives and that in reality it is something quite recent. If you have ever wondered how the Internet was invented, pay close attention because we will explain it in this report.
If you were born before the turn of the millennium, surely you remember what life was like before the arrival of the Internet. In a matter of 20 years technology has greatly changed our way of life, and the Network has played a very important role in making this revolution possible.
What is the Internet?
Since the Internet is so vast and ubiquitous, it can sometimes be a concept that seems complex and difficult to understand. Therefore, first of all, first of all let’s see what the Internet is .
The term is a loan from English and is the name of a registered trademark formed by the shortening of Inter (national) net (work) .
If we develop the definition of the Internet with information from the RAE and Wikipedia , we can say that it is a computer network composed of a decentralized set of communication networks interconnected through the family of TCP / IP protocols, which guarantees that physical networks Its heterogeneous components form a unique logical network with a global reach.
The World Wide Web (WWW) is one of the Internet services that has had the most success, and that is why sometimes both terms are confused. The WWW is a set of protocols that allows remote consultation of hypertext files that the Internet uses as a means of transmission.
However, it is not the only Internet service . In addition to the web we also find the sending of electronic mail (SMTP), the transmission of files (FTP and P2P), online conversations (IRC) or instant messaging and multimedia and telephone conversation service (VoIP), among others .
The origin of the Internet
The history of the Internet began to develop after the development of electronic computers in the 1950s. The initial ideas originated in several computer labs in the United States, the United Kingdom and France, and the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) , that later it would change its name to Agency of Projects of Advanced Investigation of Defense (DARPA), was the one in charge to start up the first connection of computers.
Since ARPA was a military agency, its main motivation for creating the Internet was related to defense. In 1969 he created ARPANET, a network that connected universities, government agencies and defense contractors across the United States to facilitate communications. It was growing rapidly and by the mid-70s it had almost 60 nodes.
The arrival of Internetworking
The problem with ARPANET was that it was not a mobile network. The solution was valid for academics, researchers or politicians, who had access to huge terminals in universities and agencies, but not for soldiers deployed on the battlefield.
Therefore, researchers needed this communications network to be accessible from anywhere in the world. To achieve this, they first had to build a wireless network capable of transmitting data packets between the widely dispersed gears of the US military machine, either by radio or satellite.
Second, they had to connect those wireless networks to the ARPANET wired network, so that the powerful connected computers could serve the soldiers in combat. Scientists called this Internetworking .
Achieving this was not easy. If making computers communicate with each other had been a difficult undertaking, getting the same with different networks was an even greater challenge. This was possible thanks to the set of Internet protocols (TCP / IP) developed by Robert E. Kahn and Vint Cerf that began operating in 1976, a simple but very flexible protocol with rules on how computers should communicate. It became the ARPANET standard in 1983.
In addition to ARPANET, other networks began to develop . One of them was NSFNET of the NSF (National Science Foundation), whose purpose was to promote advanced research, which would later be completed with the NSINET and ESNET networks. At the same time, other public and commercial backbone networks appeared in Europe.
The birth of the World Wide Web
1990 was a very important year for the Internet, since it supposed the birth of the World Wide Web , one of the services that has had the most success and that since 2010 has become the tool that the billions of people use to interact by Internet.
The WWW is a system of distribution of hypertext documents or hypermedia interconnected and accessible via the Internet. Using a web browser, any user can view websites composed of pages containing texts, photos, videos and other multimedia content, and navigate through these pages through hyperlinks.
The WWW began to be shaped by the research led by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN in Switzerland. His team of physicists created the HTML language in 1989, and a year later he built the first web server and also the first web client, called WorldWideWeb . However, others soon arrived, such as Mosaic (later Netscape) in 1993 and later Microsoft’s Internet Explorer.
On April 30, 1993, the Web came into the public domain: CERN made the technologies available to the public so that anyone could use them for free. With the elimination of the restrictions of commercial use of the Web, the service of America Online (AOL) began to offer its customers an Internet connection through its own internal browser , so that Internet users also began to be people. not linked to the academic, scientific or governmental sectors.
The Web 1.0
The first decade of life of the WWW is known as Web 1.0. The data transfer speed was quite low and the file storage needs were infinitely lower.
The main use made of the Internet at this time was the mailing lists, email, forums and online bulletins, personal blogs and websites.
The Web 2.0
The concept of Web 2.0 was mentioned for the first time in 1999, but the period really started in 2004. It is used to identify the period in which websites put the accent on user-generated content, usability and interoperability .
At the end of 2004, the first Web 2.0 Conference was held. In his opening speech, Tim O’Really and John Battelle defined the concept of web as a platform, in which applications were based on the web and not on the desktop. Web 2.0 does not refer to any specific technical update, but to a series of cumulative changes in the way web pages are made and used. The content created by the user and their interactions with other people gain more prominence and this opens the way to the birth of social networks, video platforms or web applications.
The Mobile Web
The popularization of smartphones with Internet connection marked the beginning of a new era for the Web . At this time mobile devices are gaining ground to desktop computers, which requires the adaptation of the contents for its correct viewing also on smaller screens.
This epoch stands out for the popularization of the services based on the location, the vertiginous ascent of the apps, the reign of the social networks and the Internet of the things.
And what does the future of the Internet hold for us? Everything points to the trends of the next are the application of augmented reality and virtual reality to the web, the consolidation of the Internet of Things and Artificial Intelligence, as well as a greater ubiquity that will come with the rise of virtual assistants.